An Analysis of Split-Ring Resonators and Potential Barcode Application Manuscript Received: 16 October 2023, Accepted: 18 November 2023, Published: 15 March 2024, ORCiD: 0009-0000-1489-826X,

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Chu Shen Ong
Kim Ho Yeap
Zhi Lin Chong
Humaira Nisar


This paper presents an analysis of various split-ring resonator (SRR) configurations coupled with coplanar waveguides (CPW). Three distinct resonant structures are presented, namely, the S-shaped split-ring resonator (S-SRR), the conventional split-ring resonator (SRR), and a pair of SRR. Among the examined resonant structures, it is observed that the S-SRR exhibits the smallest electrical size with the corresponding resonant frequency of 1.37 GHz, while the conventional SRR has the largest electrical size with the corresponding resonant frequency of 3.34 GHz. On the other hand, the resonant frequency of a dual SRR is 2.37 GHz. However, the transmission coefficient of a dual SRR is -11.43 dB, which is higher than S-SRR (-10.02 dB) and SRR (-8.18 dB). Furthermore, this study extends the analysis between a square dual SRR and a circular dual SRR with retained area. The square SRR demonstrates a lower resonance frequency (2.23 GHz) relative to its circular counterpart (2.37 GHz). The comparison also shows that the transmission coefficient of the square configuration is -13.88 dB, which is higher than its circular counterpart (-11.43 dB). The realization of a barcode application is achieved by loading multiple S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs) with varying geometric parameters adjacently onto the transmission line. By individually rotating each of these S-SRRs, it becomes possible to alter the notch magnitude, thereby positioning it within a specific designated range corresponding to a particular code. In the case of a configuration involving rotations of (0°, 45°, 90°, 0°, 45°, 90°), this approach results in the creation of a barcode denoted as "100 010 000 100 011 000". This methodology enables the encoding of information in the form of distinctive resonant responses, providing a versatile and compact means of realizing barcode applications.

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